Bases for tangent spaces

The following functions and types provide support for bases of the tangent space of different manifolds. Moreover, bases of the cotangent space are also supported, though this description focuses on the tangent space. An orthonormal basis of the tangent space $T_p \mathcal M$ of (real) dimension $n$ has a real-coefficient basis $e_1, e_2, …, e_n$ if $\mathrm{Re}(g_p(e_i, e_j)) = δ_{ij}$ for each $i,j ∈ \{1, 2, …, n\}$ where $g_p$ is the Riemannian metric at point $p$. A vector $X$ from the tangent space $T_p \mathcal M$ can be expressed in Einstein notation as a sum $X = X^i e_i$, where (real) coefficients $X^i$ are calculated as $X^i = \mathrm{Re}(g_p(X, e_i))$.

The main types are:

The main functions are:

  • get_basis precomputes a basis at a certain point.
  • get_coordinates returns coordinates of a tangent vector.
  • get_vector returns a vector for the specified coordinates.
  • get_vectors returns a vector of basis vectors. Calling it should be avoided for high-dimensional manifolds.
ManifoldsBase.CachedBasisType
CachedBasis{𝔽,V,<:AbstractBasis{𝔽}} <: AbstractBasis{𝔽}

A cached version of the given basis with precomputed basis vectors. The basis vectors are stored in data, either explicitly (like in cached variants of ProjectedOrthonormalBasis) or implicitly.

Constructor

CachedBasis(basis::AbstractBasis, data)
source
ManifoldsBase.DefaultBasisType
DefaultBasis{𝔽,VST<:VectorSpaceType}

An arbitrary basis of vector space of type VST on a manifold. This will usually be the fastest basis available for a manifold.

The type parameter 𝔽 denotes the AbstractNumbers that will be used for the vectors elements.

See also

VectorSpaceType

source
ManifoldsBase.DefaultOrthogonalBasisType
DefaultOrthogonalBasis{𝔽,VST<:VectorSpaceType}

An arbitrary orthogonal basis of vector space of type VST on a manifold. This will usually be the fastest orthogonal basis available for a manifold.

The type parameter 𝔽 denotes the AbstractNumbers that will be used for the vectors elements.

See also

VectorSpaceType

source
ManifoldsBase.DefaultOrthonormalBasisType
DefaultOrthonormalBasis(𝔽::AbstractNumbers = ℝ, vs::VectorSpaceType = TangentSpace)

An arbitrary orthonormal basis of vector space of type VST on a manifold. This will usually be the fastest orthonormal basis available for a manifold.

The type parameter 𝔽 denotes the AbstractNumbers that will be used for the vectors elements.

See also

VectorSpaceType

source
ManifoldsBase.DiagonalizingOrthonormalBasisType
DiagonalizingOrthonormalBasis{𝔽,TV} <: AbstractOrthonormalBasis{𝔽,TangentSpaceType}

An orthonormal basis Ξ as a vector of tangent vectors (of length determined by manifold_dimension) in the tangent space that diagonalizes the curvature tensor $R(u,v)w$ and where the direction frame_direction $v$ has curvature 0.

The type parameter 𝔽 denotes the AbstractNumbers that will be used for the vectors elements.

Constructor

DiagonalizingOrthonormalBasis(frame_direction, 𝔽::AbstractNumbers = ℝ)
source
ManifoldsBase.ProjectedOrthonormalBasisType
ProjectedOrthonormalBasis(method::Symbol, 𝔽::AbstractNumbers = ℝ)

An orthonormal basis that comes from orthonormalization of basis vectors of the ambient space projected onto the subspace representing the tangent space at a given point.

The type parameter 𝔽 denotes the AbstractNumbers that will be used for the vectors elements.

Available methods:

  • :gram_schmidt uses a modified Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization.
  • :svd uses SVD decomposition to orthogonalize projected vectors. The SVD-based method should be more numerically stable at the cost of an additional assumption (local metric tensor at a point where the basis is calculated has to be diagonal).
source
ManifoldsBase.VectorSpaceTypeType
VectorSpaceType

Abstract type for tangent spaces, cotangent spaces, their tensor products, exterior products, etc.

Every vector space fiber is supposed to provide:

  • a method of constructing vectors,
  • basic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication by a scalar and negation (unary minus),
  • zero_vector(fiber, p) to construct zero vectors at point p,
  • allocate(X) and allocate(X, T) for vector X and type T,
  • copyto!(X, Y) for vectors X and Y,
  • number_eltype(v) for vector v,
  • vector_space_dimension.

Optionally:

  • inner product via inner (used to provide Riemannian metric on vector bundles),
  • flat and sharp,
  • norm (by default uses inner),
  • project (for embedded vector spaces),
  • representation_size,
  • broadcasting for basic operations.
source
ManifoldsBase.allocation_promotion_functionMethod
allocation_promotion_function(M::AbstractManifold, f, args::Tuple)

Determine the function that must be used to ensure that the allocated representation is of the right type. This is needed for get_vector when a point on a complex manifold is represented by a real-valued vectors with a real-coefficient basis, so that a complex-valued vector representation is allocated.

source
ManifoldsBase.dual_basisMethod
dual_basis(M::AbstractManifold, p, B::AbstractBasis)

Get the dual basis to B, a basis of a vector space at point p from manifold M.

The dual to the $i$th vector $v_i$ from basis B is a vector $v^i$ from the dual space such that $v^i(v_j) = δ^i_j$, where $δ^i_j$ is the Kronecker delta symbol:

\[δ^i_j = \begin{cases} 1 & \text{ if } i=j, \\ 0 & \text{ otherwise.} \end{cases}\]

source
ManifoldsBase.get_basisMethod
get_basis(M::AbstractManifold, p, B::AbstractBasis; kwargs...) -> CachedBasis

Compute the basis vectors of the tangent space at a point on manifold M represented by p.

Returned object derives from AbstractBasis and may have a field .vectors that stores tangent vectors or it may store them implicitly, in which case the function get_vectors needs to be used to retrieve the basis vectors.

See also: get_coordinates, get_vector

source
ManifoldsBase.get_coordinatesMethod
get_coordinates(M::AbstractManifold, p, X, B::AbstractBasis)
get_coordinates(M::AbstractManifold, p, X, B::CachedBasis)

Compute a one-dimensional vector of coefficients of the tangent vector X at point denoted by p on manifold M in basis B.

Depending on the basis, p may not directly represent a point on the manifold. For example if a basis transported along a curve is used, p may be the coordinate along the curve. If a CachedBasis is provided, their stored vectors are used, otherwise the user has to provide a method to compute the coordinates.

For the CachedBasis keep in mind that the reconstruction with get_vector requires either a dual basis or the cached basis to be selfdual, for example orthonormal

See also: get_vector, get_basis

source
ManifoldsBase.get_vectorMethod
X = get_vector(M::AbstractManifold, p, c, B::AbstractBasis)

Convert a one-dimensional vector of coefficients in a basis B of the tangent space at p on manifold M to a tangent vector X at p.

Depending on the basis, p may not directly represent a point on the manifold. For example if a basis transported along a curve is used, p may be the coordinate along the curve.

For the CachedBasis keep in mind that the reconstruction from get_coordinates requires either a dual basis or the cached basis to be selfdual, for example orthonormal

See also: get_coordinates, get_basis

source
ManifoldsBase.get_vectorsMethod
get_vectors(M::AbstractManifold, p, B::AbstractBasis)

Get the basis vectors of basis B of the tangent space at point p.

source
ManifoldsBase.gram_schmidtMethod
gram_schmidt(M::AbstractManifold{𝔽}, p, B::AbstractBasis{𝔽}) where {𝔽}
gram_schmidt(M::AbstractManifold, p, V::AbstractVector)

Compute an ONB in the tangent space at p on the [AbstractManifold](@ref} M from either an AbstractBasis basis ´B´ or a set of (at most) manifold_dimension(M) many vectors. Note that this method requires the manifold and basis to work on the same AbstractNumbers 𝔽, i.e. with real coefficients.

The method always returns a basis, i.e. linearly dependent vectors are removed.

Keyword arguments

  • warn_linearly_dependent (false) – warn if the basis vectors are not linearly independent
  • skip_linearly_dependent (false) – whether to just skip (true) a vector that is linearly dependent to the previous ones or to stop (false, default) at that point
  • return_incomplete_set (false) – throw an error if the resulting set of vectors is not a basis but contains less vectors

further keyword arguments can be passed to set the accuracy of the independence test. Especially atol is raised slightly by default to atol = 5*1e-16.

Return value

When a set of vectors is orthonormalized a set of vectors is returned. When an AbstractBasis is orthonormalized, a CachedBasis is returned.

source
ManifoldsBase.hatMethod
hat(M::AbstractManifold, p, Xⁱ)

Given a basis $e_i$ on the tangent space at a point p and tangent component vector $X^i$, compute the equivalent vector representation $X=X^i e_i$, where Einstein summation notation is used:

\[∧ : X^i ↦ X^i e_i\]

For array manifolds, this converts a vector representation of the tangent vector to an array representation. The vee map is the hat map's inverse.

source
ManifoldsBase.number_of_coordinatesMethod
number_of_coordinates(M::AbstractManifold{𝔽}, B::AbstractBasis)
number_of_coordinates(M::AbstractManifold{𝔽}, ::𝔾)

Compute the number of coordinates in basis of field type 𝔾 on a manifold M. This also corresponds to the number of vectors represented by B, or stored within B in case of a CachedBasis.

source
ManifoldsBase.veeMethod
vee(M::AbstractManifold, p, X)

Given a basis $e_i$ on the tangent space at a point p and tangent vector X, compute the vector components $X^i$, such that $X = X^i e_i$, where Einstein summation notation is used:

\[\vee : X^i e_i ↦ X^i\]

For array manifolds, this converts an array representation of the tangent vector to a vector representation. The hat map is the vee map's inverse.

source